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The buildings in height and the perimetral structure or linked to the communication

Historical introduction: of the antiquity to our days

The starts-of the antiquity to the Romanesque thing

We meet the difficulty to set the starts of the buildings in height. There are numerous architectural works –siempre and when it do without the Zevianas warnings on which it is and is not architecture-such as the Egyptian pyramids or the ziggurats of the ancient Orient that in the presence of your imposing upgrade gradient it could hurry us to include in it considerate “edificio in altura”, but soon it catches on that this –la dimension vertical-is not preponderant on two it sizes horizontals.

In the Roman Pharos' lighthouse we find already a typology that can be considerate building in height. Your structural typology is very clear: the structure of wall of load delimits the perimeter of the building, along which forms up the vertical communication. Difficult result, still in our days it find a more clear example of symbiosis constructs, closing, vertical communication.

The tower of Hercules, clear example of structure of perimetral walls on those who lean to him the vertical communication. This so overt report was used by Giannini in your restoration of the XVIII century with motives even symbolic, with the molding by following the ramp ( see right )

This typology of the Roman beacon defer a lot of of she who find in any tower of the big religious buildings or militaries of the age it intercedes: a building whose ambition is to achieve the major height to place an item ( bell-shaped or beacon, symbolic function here, in toto functional in the beacon ) by means of a stairs or based one's opinion on ramp a solid |perimetral| structure.

Cathedral of Worns, Germany, finished in 1181, whose circular towers of 55 meters of height not have not a too big typological difference with the previous example, being an efficient perimetral structure that sustains a tight stairs it takes to the bell tower

Active vector bankrupt estate: of the Gothic to the S.XVIII

It is not to guess right to say that was directed at the Gothic when appeared the system of active vector ( that is, the replacement of the wall of load for a system of columns or pillars ), yes of course the Greek temples were accustomed this one last. Notwithstanding, if it went the first moment in which this it was the custom in the buildings in height.

The famous Campanile of Venice( starts of the XIV century ), work of the brilliant Giotto di Bondone, in which your almost 85 meters of –por height so single 14.5 base meters-it is sustained by means of four enormous polygonal pilasters in the corners. as of these |perimetrales| items form up several horizontal items. The system of vertical communications, adapted to this constructs, defer too much of the previous models.

The |perimetral| structure as unique road for the construction in height continued during the later centuries.

to the right, the baroque towers of the Santiago cathedral ( extrapoled example to almost the totality of baroque towers ) in those who an efficient polygonal structure servs as support to the vertical communications they take until the high thing

The elimination constructs-closing. Of the Chicago school to the modern movement

Although is accustomed to attribute to the school of Chicago the “invención” of the structure, skeleton, the fact is that already the the XVIII French rationalist. ( as the Marc abbot, Antoine Laugier ) advocated for this idea for the reduction in mas of the buildings. But in the Chicago of the XIX, the appearance of a new material for the –el construction fits with hardware-generalized your use in the buildings in height. On the other hand, the appearance of elevator, besides contributing to the playback of buildings in height for daily uses, caused a new report between the structure and the vertical communications.

With the structure-skeleton, the use of the sun-dried perimetral structure of be the unique road for the construction in height to be an option. The use of portiqued systems not gave up the perimetral part of the structure, but added the possibility to introduce part of the same thing in the inside of the building, by following a geometry foreign to the perimetral. Attractive result verifies how to the perimetral part of the same furnishes with you to him a symbolic component, coating the with stone (Rookney) or factory (Marshall)

The Wainwright Building ( left ), whose constructs appears contribute a symbolic aspect to the perimetral structure, it covers with stone. to the right, phase of construction of the Lever House, whose wall curtain marked the definitive elimination between constructs and closing, being the structure a reticulum dispensed all told the plant of the building ( see down ). Note the adaptation of the structure to the new vertical communication: the elevator( it sees photo to the right )

With the modern movement produces to him the definitive elimination between constructs and closing, distinguished for the buildings of harvest, with your metallic skeletons, in departs perimetral and in departs exterior. The algid moment of this elimination can be represented in the managerial building of offices for antonomasia, the Lever House of SOM ( Skidmore, Owings & Merrill ) with your so mock curtain wall in later times.

After the modern movement. The perimetral structure or linked to communications nowadays.

With the generalization of the curtain wall and the advances in the metallic structures, the possibilities on time to choose between different structural models increase. The |perimetral| structure follows being a logic model and very employee nowadays, in spite of the development of the structural endoskeleton by following an organic layout with truncate sugar mill. to general mode, can say that a combo between this truncate –muy sugar mill linked to the vertical communications, and a –desvinculada perimetral structure in almost all cases of the closing, beens converted nowadays in the model more emploied for the construction of buildings in height.

The Knights Columbus Headquarters of, of Kevin catches someone red-handed, it are one of the more radical exponents of the linked structure to the communications. Four “columnas” perimetral take shelter the stairses, while that a “pilar” central makes room for the elevators. All frameworks and structural items form up based one's opinion on these five items. In spite of it radical of the proposal, nowadays there is not that it goes very far away to find buildings tightly related with this example.

The Saint Mary Axe Building (2000-2004) of Norman Foster, in which your complex shape responds notwithstanding to a very repeated layout nowadays: a structural kernel sugar mill destined to the vertical communications, and a spectacular surrounded perimetral structure for the closing of surround with a wall curtain

The buildings in height and the perimetral structure or linked to communication

Introduction: exoskeleton and communications

¿Why the perimetral structure in a building in height? ¿What report have construct and communications?

As almost as long as it talks with one another of a constructive subject, is impossible nots to depart from the material. It stands to reason that in the first constructions in height, the use under obligation of the stone did of the perimetral structure the unique solution. The weight of the vertical communications, for your part, not stopped not more option that links in a direct way these with the structure. The development of the structures of iron and steel in the the last ones 150 years book credit removed the imposition of the perimetral structure, fact accented for the freeing of this with the closing. Notwithstanding, the perimetral structure, still when merged with other geometries, follows being a valid and very diffused option in the construction in height

As for the communications and your association to the structures, it is overt that your mass obliges to links those of some mode with the structure. The new structural geometries permit select between linking the main structure of the –perimetral building or not-with the communications, or endow to these last of an own substructure. Nowadays, other factors, as the protection of the communications in front of the fire, they are decisive in this association



Tower of Hercules, A Coruña
Tower of Hércules

Cathedral of Worns, Germany
Cathedral of Worns, Germany

Campanile of Venezza
Campanile of Venezza

torres barrocas de la Catedral de Santiago
Barroque towers of Santiago Cathedrals

Wainwright Building
Wainwright Building

Knights of Columbus Headquarters
Knights of Columbus Headquarters

Saint Mary Axe Building
Saint Mary Axe Building

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